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  1. page Home edited ... A Wiki on the Old Testament / Hebrew Bible About ... of the anniversary centenary celeb…
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    A Wiki on the Old Testament / Hebrew Bible
    About
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    of the anniversarycentenary celebrations of
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    Content
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    1:20 pm
  2. page Home edited ... The pages aim to provide reliable scholarly information in the subject area of Old Testament S…
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    The pages aim to provide reliable scholarly information in the subject area of Old Testament Study. They are written and edited by specialists in the field, and aim to be accurate while reflecting current debates in the field.
    All the pages are written in a straightforward manner to be accessible to as wide a readership as possible.
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    Dr Jonathan StöklStökl, and Dr
    Editing
    If you wish to contribute to the editing of these pages, you must be a member of SOTS. Please contact the SOTS Information Officer for further information.
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    3:21 am

Friday, June 23

  1. 7:31 am
  2. page Ezekiel edited The most shattering divine visitation in the entire Bible turns a priest at a loose end into the gr…
    The most shattering divine visitation in the entire Bible turns a priest at a loose end into the grimmest prophet in the OId Testament.
    Name
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    which it records.Morerecords. More detail is
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    in Israel; Ezek.Ezek 3:15) and
    Contents
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    symbolic actions (e.g.(e.g., 4:1-14). Sometimes
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    a vision, e.g.e.g., in the
    There is a pattern of dates running through the book, which follow almost in chronological order (only the two dates in ch. 32 seem to be out of order, both with each other and with 33:21). The point from which the dates are calculated is the day on which king Jehoiachin and the other exiles including Ezekiel left Jerusalem in early 597. They begin with the date in 1:1-2, and end 20 years later (573 BCE) in 40:1, which dates Ezekiel's great vision of the new temple (40-48).
    ...
    12th year (Dec.(Dec 586 or Jan.Jan 585), when
    This results in a simple structure for the book.
    Structure
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    40-48 Vision of the new temple, and instructions for the constitution of a new Israel.
    Date and authorship
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    be said.
    However, most modern scholars have in one way or another queried its reliability. Many believe that the book as we have it is the result of a process of editing and addition of material to a core coming from Ezekiel himself, extending perhaps to the end of he 6th century. But there is no agreement on which parts are secondary. There is certainly a very distinctive mind at work in the book, and it is reasonable to suppose it is that of Ezekiel himself, even if the text has been expanded, and even if, as is likely, the actual writing of the book was done by others after his death.
    Place
    It has also been questioned whether Ezekiel was active as a prophet only in Babylonia, as the book claims. Some scenes (in visions) are set in Jerusalem (chs. 8-11), or in the land of Israel vaguely (40:2), and some scholars have argued that Ezekiel may have had a period of ministry in Jerusalem before being deported. However, these scenes are clearly said to be in visions, and there is no sufficient reason to question the claim that Ezekiel had visions of events in Jerusalem.
    Interpretation
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    mentioned here.
    Priestly theology
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    priestly formulas, e.g.e.g., 18:5, 9:
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    shall surely live'.live.' And the
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    chs. 1-2, 8-108-10, and 40-43
    Psychology
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    quite bizarre: e.g.e.g., lying on
    Misogyny
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    their obscenity, violenceviolence, and contempt
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    in 23:48.
    Reception history
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    exceptions, however.
    The

    The
    rabbis restricted
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    antiquity (after c.ca. 200 CE),
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    the one NTNew Testament book that
    Further reading
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    A Commentary. London andLondon; New York:
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    McKeating, Henry. Ezekiel (OldEzekiel. Old Testament Guides).Guides. Sheffield: Sheffield
    Moughtin-Mumby, Sharon. Sexual and Marital Metaphors in Hosea, Jeremiah, Isaiah and Ezekiel. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
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    John W. Ezekiel (NewEzekiel. New Century Bible Commentary).Commentary. London: Nelson,
    (view changes)
    7:15 am

Wednesday, June 21

  1. page Ezekiel edited ... Reception history Generally speaking, Ezekiel has not had as much influence on Jewish and Chr…
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    Reception history
    Generally speaking, Ezekiel has not had as much influence on Jewish and Christian thought and writing as Isaiah (especially) and Jeremiah. There are exceptions, however.
    The rabbis forbaderestricted the study of the 'chariot
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    1 to be expounded to one person alone,those who were already wise, because of fear that believersthe simple might be
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    developing in the Middle Ages,late antiquity (after c. 200 CE), the so-called
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    (Heb. merkabah, 'chariot'). 'chariot'), with the central object of attaining the vision of God by ascent to heaven.
    Most New Testament books do not refer to Ezekiel. Revelation is the one exception: its language is heavily steeped in Ezekiel, and it can hardly be a coincidence that this is the one NT book that speaks of the vision of the throne of God.

    Further reading
    Joyce, Paul M. Ezekiel: A Commentary. London and New York: T & T Clark International, 2007.
    McKeating, Henry. Ezekiel (Old Testament Guides). Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993.
    Moughtin-Mumby, Sharon. Sexual and Marital Metaphors in Hosea, Jeremiah, Isaiah and Ezekiel. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
    Wevers, John W. Ezekiel (New Century Bible Commentary). London: Nelson, 1969.

    (view changes)
    12:48 pm
  2. page Ezekiel edited The most shattering divine visitation in the entire Bible turns a priest at a loose end into the gr…
    The most shattering divine visitation in the entire Bible turns a priest at a loose end into the grimmest prophet in the OId Testament.
    Name
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    in 597 BCE,BCE (2 Kgs 24:12-16), lived in
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    city in Israel)Israel; Ezek. 3:15) and 'saw
    Contents
    ...
    is in prose.prose, often very wordy. But there
    There is a pattern of dates running through the book, which follow almost in chronological order (only the two dates in ch. 32 seem to be out of order, both with each other and with 33:21). The point from which the dates are calculated is the day on which king Jehoiachin and the other exiles including Ezekiel left Jerusalem in early 597. They begin with the date in 1:1-2, and end 20 years later (573 BCE) in 40:1, which dates Ezekiel's great vision of the new temple (40-48).
    The key date is that in 33:21, the 5th day of the 10th month of the 12th year (Dec. 586 or Jan. 585), when Ezekiel hears of the fall of Jerusalem to the second Babylonian attack five months after it has happened (2 Kgs 25:8). The tone and purpose of Ezekiel's prophecy are transformed after this date.
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    for the book:
    1:1–3:15
    book.
    Structure
    1–3
    Introduction: Ezekiel's
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    a prophet
    3:16–24:27
    and general instructions
    4–24
    Prophecies of
    25–32 Prophecies against foreign nations, which the Judaeans had hoped to have as allies.
    33:1-20 Interlude: the purpose and effect of prophecy
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    40-48 Vision of the new temple, and instructions for the constitution of a new Israel.
    Date and authorship
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    be said. However,
    However,
    most modern
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    likely, the editingactual writing of the
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    his death.
    Place

    It has
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    Jerusalem (chs. 8-12),8-11), or in
    Interpretation
    This long book raises many interesting issues. Only a few can be mentioned here.
    Priestly theology
    According to 1:3 Ezekiel was a priest. It is interesting that much of the language of the book is related to priestly interests or follows priestly formulas, e.g. 18:5, 9: 'If a man is righteous and does what is lawful and right… follows my statutes and is careful to obey my ordinances, acting faithfully—such a one is righteous; he shall surely live'. And the list of sins in that passage is typical of the Holiness Code (Leviticus 17-26), which is generally thought to originate from priestly writers. The great visions of chs. 1-2, 8-10 and 40-43 are centred on the glory of God, a theme of the priestly document in the Pentatreuch, and the temple.
    Psychology
    Some of the actions that Ezekiel is asked to carry out, and does so, are quite bizarre: e.g. lying on his left side for 390 days and 40 days on his right (4:4-7). So are some of his experiences, especially being made dumb except when prophesying (3:26-27) until the day he hears of the fall of Jerusalem (33:22). Some have asked whether he was psychologically abnormal, or even suffered from a psychosis such as schizophrenia. But we must take into account first that this is a stylised literary narrative, which may present real events in an exaggerated form, and secondly that prophets and shamans in the modern world do really have strange experiences and do strange things. Ezekiel seems closer to this world than some of the other prophets.
    Misogyny
    In chs. 16 and 23 Ezekiel employs imagery similar in some ways to the 'marriage metaphor' found in Hosea 1-3, Jeremiah 2-3, or Isaiah 54, 57, 62. Jerusalem is presented as a prostitute who eagerly seeks lovers, But these chapters stand out for their obscenity, violence and contempt for the female figures who stand for Jerusalem and Samaria. Their meaning cannot be summed up in what they want to say about Jerusalem's foreign entanglements: they also have a message for real women, that they should not choose how they express their sexuality. This is actually stated in 23:48.

    Reception history
    Generally speaking, Ezekiel has not had as much influence on Jewish and Christian thought and writing as Isaiah (especially) and Jeremiah. There are exceptions, however.
    The rabbis forbade the 'chariot vision' of Ezekiel 1 to be expounded to one person alone, because of fear that believers might be misled; but this restriction did not prevent an intensively cultivated mystical theology based on this chapter developing in the Middle Ages, the so-called 'merkabah mysticism' (Heb. merkabah, 'chariot').

    Further reading
    (view changes)
    12:26 pm
  3. page Ezekiel edited ... 40-48 Vision of the new temple, and instructions for the constitution of a new Israel. Date a…
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    40-48 Vision of the new temple, and instructions for the constitution of a new Israel.
    Date and authorship
    ...
    are secondary. Some even see the book as a fiction from the 5th century, and the system of dates as artificial. Most however seeThere is certainly a very
    ...
    book, and think it is
    ...
    of Ezekiel himself.himself, even if the text has been expanded, and even if, as is likely, the editing of the book was done by others after his death.
    It has also been questioned whether Ezekiel was active as a prophet only in Babylonia, as the book claims. Some scenes (in visions) are set in Jerusalem (chs. 8-12), or in the land of Israel vaguely (40:2), and some scholars have argued that Ezekiel may have had a period of ministry in Jerusalem before being deported. However, these scenes are clearly said to be in visions, and there is no sufficient reason to question the claim that Ezekiel had visions of events in Jerusalem.

    Interpretation
    Reception history
    (view changes)
    6:29 am
  4. page Ezekiel edited ... The entire book is written in the first person, apart from the note in 1:3 giving Ezekiel's na…
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    The entire book is written in the first person, apart from the note in 1:3 giving Ezekiel's name, thus it claims to be written by Ezekiel, who relates his experiences with YHWH and the revelations that YHWH gave him. In keeping with this, most of the book is in prose. But there are some oracles—prophetic messages—from God that are poetic. Besides oracles from God, Ezekiel relates a number of visions, all of them long and elaborate, beginning with the long call vision, which leaves him 'stunned' (3:15). He also tells how he obeys commands from God to perform symbolic actions (e.g. 4:1-14). Sometimes he performs the actions in a vision, e.g. in the well-known vision of the valley of dry bones (37:1-14).
    There is a pattern of dates running through the book, which follow almost in chronological order (only the two dates in ch. 32 seem to be out of order, both with each other and with 33:21). The point from which the dates are calculated is the day on which king Jehoiachin and the other exiles including Ezekiel left Jerusalem in early 597. They begin with the date in 1:1-2, and end 20 years later (573 BCE) in 40:1, which dates Ezekiel's great vision of the new temple (40-48).
    The bookkey date is that in 33:21, the 5th day of the 10th month of the 12th year (Dec. 586 or Jan. 585), when Ezekiel hears of the fall of Jerusalem to the second Babylonian attack five months after it has happened (2 Kgs 25:8). The tone and purpose of Ezekiel's prophecy are transformed after this date.
    This results in
    a simple structure:structure for the book:
    1:1–3:15 Introduction: Ezekiel's call to be a prophet
    3:16–24:27 Prophecies of judgment against Jerusalem. Jerusalem is doomed!
    ...
    33:1-20 Interlude: the purpose and effect of prophecy
    33:21–39:29 Prophecies of comfort and restoration for the exiles
    ...
    the new temple
    The key date is that in 33:21,
    temple, and instructions for the 5th day of the 10th month of the 12th year (Dec. 586 or Jan. 585), when Ezekiel hears of the fall of Jerusalem to the second Babylonian attack five months after it has happened (2 Kgs 25:8). The tone and purposeconstitution of Ezekiel's prophecy are transformed after this date.a new Israel.
    Date and authorship
    ...
    its reliability. Many believe that the book as we have it is the result of a process of editing and addition of material to a core coming from Ezekiel himself, extending perhaps to the end of he 6th century. But there is no agreement on which parts are secondary. Some even see the book as a fiction from the 5th century, and the system of dates as artificial. Most however see a very distinctive mind at work in the book, and think it is reasonable to suppose it is that of Ezekiel himself.
    Interpretation
    Reception history
    (view changes)
    4:54 am
  5. page Ezekiel edited ... 33:21–39:29 Prophecies of comfort and restoration for the exiles 40-48 Vision of the new temp…
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    33:21–39:29 Prophecies of comfort and restoration for the exiles
    40-48 Vision of the new temple
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    12th year (about December 586),(Dec. 586 or Jan. 585), when Ezekiel
    ...
    tone and contentpurpose of Ezekiel's
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    this date.
    Date and authorship
    If the information in the text, detailed above, is relied on, nothing more need be said. However, most modern scholars have in one way or another queried its reliability.
    Interpretation
    Reception history
    (view changes)
    3:59 am

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