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  1. page Ezekiel edited The most shattering divine visitation in the entire Bible turns a priest at a loose end into the gr…
    The most shattering divine visitation in the entire Bible turns a priest at a loose end into the grimmest prophet in the OId Testament.
    593, the fifth5th year of
    The entire book is written in the first person, apart from the note in 1:3 giving Ezekiel's name, thus it claims to be written by Ezekiel, who relates his experiences with YHWH and the revelations that YHWH gave him. In keeping with this, most of the book is in prose, often very wordy. But there are some oracles—prophetic messages—from God that are poetic. Besides oracles from God, Ezekiel relates a number of visions, all of them long and elaborate, beginning with the long call vision, which leaves him 'stunned' (3:15). He also tells how he obeys commands from God to perform symbolic actions (e.g., 4:1-14). Sometimes he performs the actions in a vision, e.g., in the well-known vision of the valley of dry bones (37:1-14).
    This results in a simple structure for the book.
    be a prophetprophet; and general instructionsinstructions.
    4–24 Prophecies of judgment against Jerusalem. Jerusalem is doomed!
    25–32 Prophecies against foreign nations, which the Judaeans had hoped to have as allies.
    effect of prophecyprophecy.
    33:21–39:29 Prophecies
    for the exilesexiles.
    40-48 Vision of the new temple, and instructions for the constitution of a new Israel.
    Date and authorship
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    3:39 am

Friday, June 22

Thursday, June 21

Wednesday, June 20

  1. page Jewish Festivals edited ... The herbs that are consumed are normally parsley and long lettuce. The leaves are symbols of f…
    The herbs that are consumed are normally parsley and long lettuce. The leaves are symbols of freedom as they branch out into the open. The bitterness of the stalk is a symbol of the harshness of slavery. The dipping of the herbs in salt water symbolises both the sea which was parted to make way for them and the tears from the time of slavery in Egypt. As well as the herbs a selection of charoset will be eaten. These are fruit, nuts, and spices which again symbolise the sweetness of freedom.
    The final two symbols which accompany the foods are not eaten, since they are purely representative. The first of these is a hard-boiled egg which is roasted. This is to give the effect of the burnt sacrifice which would be offered in the Temple. The second is a lamb bone which is the symbol to represent the tradition of slaughtering the Paschal lamb.
    Feast of Weeks (Shavuot)Feast of Weeks
    The second pilgrim festival of the year, the Feast of Weeks, is also known as Shavuot (literally ‘weeks’), Pentecost ('fiftieth [day]'), Harvest Festival, and Day of the First Fruits. It occurs in late spring, fifty days after the beginning of Passover, hence Pentecost. Although the festival was originally associated with agriculture, it now celebrates the giving of the Torah to Moses on Mount Sinai (Exodus 19). One custom at this time is to decorate the synagogue with flowers and plants because legend has it that the mountain burst into flower as a way of expressing how important and how beautiful Judaism is.
    He brought us to this place and gave us this land, a land flowing with milk and honey. Wherefore I now bring the first fruits of the soil which You, O LORD, have given me. (Deuteronomy 26:9-10)
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    4:13 am
  2. page Ecclesiastes (Qohelet) edited ... A strange epilogue follows this vivid passage. It talks about Qohelet having been wise, and ab…
    A strange epilogue follows this vivid passage. It talks about Qohelet having been wise, and about his selection and collation of sayings to create words that are both pleasing and truthful. Then, however, 12:11-12 describe all such collections as being like the spiked goads used by shepherds, and each saying as like a nail in such a goad. Accordingly, they are to be regarded with caution, and much study is, metaphorically, a tearing of the flesh. Abruptly declaring that all has now been heard, the epilogue then brings matters to a close with a demand to fear God and keep his commandments, with a warning that every deed will be judged. Those last sentiments sit uneasily with the tone of the book, and the whole epilogue has often been regarded as a secondary, editorial addition to the original words of Qohelet. Much recent scholarship, however, has preferred to understand it in terms of a frame-narrative: using a different, editorial voice in the title and epilogue, the creator comments on the words of his own character, and perhaps distances himself from Qohelet, inviting the reader also to think critically about what they have read.
    Date and authorship
    actual author (M. V. Fox 1977:(Fox 1977, 83-106).
    Qohelet is traditionally associated with King Solomon, and the statements in 1:1 and 1:12 point in this direction if they are taken together: Qohelet is both a son of David and a king over Israel (not just Judah) in Jerusalem. Solomon is not identified explicitly, however, and if Qohelet speaks as a king at all outside these verses, it is probably only briefly, in the first two chapters of the book. Some Jewish tradition explains the use of the name "Qohelet" rather than "Solomon" by means of a story, and the Targum, for instance, describes how God punished Solomon's pride and sins by sending against him Asmodeus, king of the demons, who took his place on the throne: Solomon subsequently wandered Israel weeping, and calling himself Qohelet. It is not certain, however, either that the association with Solomon was originally present in the the book, or, if it was, that it was intended to be taken seriously.
    The contents of the monologue do not suggest that it must actually have been written by Solomon, even if the information in 1:1 and 1:12 is original. They do not exclude the possibility, however, and some conservative scholars still regard the book as a Solomonic composition. Most critical commentators, on the other hand, reject this attribution, usually pointing to the unusual character of the Hebrew in the book. This shares a number of characteristics with later, post-biblical Hebrew, and although it cannot definitively be described as "late" Hebrew itself, it is unlikely to be the language of the early period with which Solomon is associated. Most significantly, the book contains two words which are borrowings from Persian, and which are unlikely to have entered Hebrew usage before the Persian period. Most scholars regard the book as a product of the Hellenistic period, with a few preferring the Persian period. If it is not the work of Solomon, as seems likely, then the identity of the actual author is unknown, and we have no information about the circumstances of its composition.
    Further reading
    Christianson, Eric S. Ecclesiastes Through the Centuries. Blackwell Bible Commentaries. Malden, Oxford; Carlton: Blackwell, 2007.
    Fox, M.Michael V. "Frame-Narrative
    Fox, M.Michael V. A
    Weeks, Stuart. Pages 71-84 in An Introduction to the Study of Wisdom Literature. T&T Clark Approaches to Biblical Studies. New York; London: T&T Clark, 2010.
    (view changes)
    4:03 am

Tuesday, June 19

  1. page Eschatology edited The term “eschatology” does not exist in the Old Testament. It comes from two Greek words to mean e…
    The term “eschatology” does not exist in the Old Testament. It comes from two Greek words to mean eschaton (“last things”) and logos (“word/doctrine”); hence, eschatology designates “the word/doctrine concerning the last things”.
    Since antiquity, the Jewish community had conceived of the best situation in which they would want to be. Jewish eschatology deals primarily with the destiny of Israel and the world, and secondarily with the future of the individual. Its contents concern Israel as Yahweh’s people, the victory of His truth and justice on earth, and the expectation of the greater things to come.
    biblical myth (meaning "story"(story retold for
    Prophets refer to traditions (creation, Abrahamic covenant, election, Sinai covenant, David, Zion, etc.) to assess the contemporary events, aiming for Israel’s transformation and ultimate salvation. In doing so, they help Israel under foreign rule regain her relationship with Yahweh and live responsibly as His elect. Some scholars divide eschatology into two sub-categories: prophetic eschatology and apocalyptic eschatology. The former is believed to have arisen from within Israel and transitioned into the latter. However, a minor group of scholars support the idea that eschatology received foreign influence, while others treat only apocalyptic eschatology as a foreign import.
    Eschatology is formulated to respond to historical realities. The expectation of the Messiah, as a type of eschatology, signifies Israel’s desire for an end to the exile (Isaiah 11). The idea of the kingdom of God can be found in prophetic eschatology and the psalms.
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    4:15 am
  2. page Dead Sea Scrolls edited ... Texts in English: Vermes, G. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. Rev. 50th anniversary …
    Texts in English:
    Vermes, G. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. Rev. 50th anniversary ed. London: Penguin, 2011.
    to Hebrew, AramaicAramaic, and English
    Martínez, F. García, and E. J. C. Tigchelaar. The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition. 2 vols. Leiden; Grand Rapids: Brill, 2000.
    Open access to multiple images:
    (view changes)
    4:06 am